A Comprehensive Review of In-Body Biomedical Antennas: Design, Challenges and Applications

Khaled Aliqab, Iram Nadeem, Sadeque Reza Khan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)
140 Downloads (Pure)


In-body biomedical devices (IBBDs) are receiving significant attention in the discovery of solutions to complex medical conditions. Biomedical devices, which can be ingested, injected or implanted in the human body, have made it viable to screen the physiological signs of a patient wirelessly, without regular hospital appointments and routine check-ups, where the antenna is a mandatory element for transferring bio-data from the IBBDs to the external world. However, the design of an in-body antenna is challenging due to the dispersion of the dielectric constant of the tissues and unpredictability of the organ structures of the human body, which can absorb most of the antenna radiation. Therefore, various factors must be considered for an in-body antenna, such as miniaturization, link budget, patient safety, biocompatibility, low power consumption and the ability to work effectively within acceptable medical frequency bands. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of the major facets associated with the design and challenges of in-body antennas. The review comprises surveying the design specifications and implementation methodology, simulation software and testing of in-body biomedical antennas. This work aims to summarize the recent in-body antenna innovations for biomedical applications and indicates the key research challenges.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1472
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 21 Jul 2023


  • SAR
  • biocompatibility
  • capsule endoscopy
  • frequency band
  • implantable
  • ingestible
  • injectable

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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