A Comprehensive Review of Biochar Utilization for Low-Carbon Flexible Asphalt Pavements

Nura Shehu Aliyu Yaro, Muslich Hartadi Sutanto, Noor Zainab Habib, Aliyu Usman, Jibrin Mohammed Kaura, Abdulfatai Adinoyi Murana, Abdullahi Haruna Birniwa, Ahmad Hussaini Jagaba

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Citations (Scopus)
206 Downloads (Pure)


A large amount of biomass waste is produced globally, and its production and improper management are major environmental issues. Pavement industries consume large amounts of natural resources and adversely impact the environment. Thus, the utilization of waste materials, such as biochar from biomass, has been prioritized as an innovative and sustainable strategy. However, there is currently a paucity of knowledge regarding the utilization and performance of biochar in flexible asphalt pavements. Thus, the purpose of this study was to provide a comprehensive literature review of studies conducted between 2010 and 2022 on the advancement and application of biochar in flexible asphalt pavement production. This review also highlights biochar production materials (feedstocks) and processes. This review further evaluates the viability of biochar as a carbon-neutral material utilized in producing asphalt pavements. Owing to its exceptional and variable physicochemical properties, biochar has demonstrated improved performance for a variety of applications in flexible asphalt pavements. According to the review, for optimum performance, a particle size < 75 µm is recommended as a modifier for asphalt binders and mixtures with a content range of 5–10 wt.% of the binder, while a particle size of 1–5 mm is recommended as a filter layer. In addition, the review concluded that as a carbon-neutral material, biochar has many possibilities that can aid in reducing CO2 emissions. The challenges and future perspectives, underlying study niches, and future research suggestions for biochar application in the flexible asphalt pavement industry are also highlighted. As a result, this review will contribute to the increased sustainability and eco-friendliness of flexible asphalt pavements by encouraging the transition to carbon-negative and emission-reducing pavements. The current review will assist researchers in identifying research gaps that will encourage the high-potential, sustainable, and multifaceted application of biochar in the pavement industry for greater environmental benefits.
Original languageEnglish
Article number6729
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 16 Apr 2023


  • CO emission
  • biochar
  • biomass
  • carbon-neutral material
  • flexible asphalt pavement
  • sustainability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Building and Construction
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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