Although a number of methods for calculating dynamic pseudo-functions have been developed over the years, there is still a lack of understanding as to why a certain method will succeed in some cases but fail in others. In this paper, we describe the results of an assessment of several upscaling methods, namely the Kyte and Berry (KB) method, the Stone method, the Hewett and Archer (HA) method and the Transmissibility-Weighted (TW) method. We have analyzed the equations for deriving the methods and investigated the results of numerical simulations of gas displacing oil, in a variety of models to enable us to gain new insights into these, and related, upscaling methods. In particular, some novel observations on methods based on fluid potential are presented and the issue of using predicted fluid mobilities as a criterion of accuracy of an upscaling method is clarified.
- Two-phase flow