A 256 x 256, 100-kfps, 61% Fill-Factor SPAD Image Sensor for Time-Resolved Microscopy Applications

Istvan Gyongy, Neil Calder, Amy Davies, Neale A. W. Dutton, Rory R. Duncan, Colin Rickman, Paul A. Dalgarno, Robert K. Henderson

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A 256 x256 single-photon avalanche diode image sensor operating at 100 kfps with fill factor of 61% and pixel pitch of 16 μm is reported. An all-nMOS 7T pixel allows gated operation down to 4 ns and ~600-ps fall time with on-chip delay generation. The sensor operates with 0.996 temporal aperture ratio in rolling shutter. Gating and cooling allow the suppression of dark noise, which, in combination with the high fill factor, enables competitive low-light performance with electron multiplying charge-coupled devices while offering time-resolved imaging modes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)547-554
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Transactions on Electron Devices
Issue number2
Early online date21 Dec 2017
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2018



  • CMOS single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD)
  • Image sensors
  • Lenses
  • Logic gates
  • Microoptics
  • Microscopy
  • Photonics
  • quanta image sensor
  • single-photon counting (SPC)
  • switched current source (SCS) counter

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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