A 2.45-GHz Energy-Autonomous Wireless Power Relay Node

Massimo Del Prete*, Alessandra Costanzo, Apostolos Georgiadis, Ana Collado, Diego Masotti, Zoya Popovic

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


This paper describes the design and experimental characterization of a battery-less bidirectional 2.45-GHz circuit operating in oscillator mode as a wireless power transmitter or in rectifier mode as an energy harvester, with a measured efficiency greater than 50% in both operating states. The dc voltage harvested in rectifier mode provides the drain bias for the oscillator. The FET-gate self-bias mechanism is exploited in both functionalities, thus eliminating external gate bias. Bi-directionality is based on the time-reversal properties of a transistor oscillator. Energy autonomy is possible at received RF power levels as low as -4 dBm, by means of a bias-assisting feedback loop, consisting of a single matched low-power diode in shunt configuration. A hybrid prototype is demonstrated with the ability to operate as an energy-autonomous power relay node by switching between transmit and receive power modes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4511-4520
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2015


  • Autonomous circuit
  • battery-less
  • energy harvesting
  • microwave oscillator
  • rectifier
  • wireless power transfer


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