3D-printed photoreactor with robust g-C3N4 homojunction based thermoset coating as a new and sustainable approach for photocatalytic wastewater treatment

Sue Jiun Phang, Voon Loong Wong, Kean How Cheah, Lling Lling Tan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)


Recently, the rapid technological advancement in photocatalysis has gained popularity as a means of addressing climate change and environmental degradation issues. The rapid surge in interest for 3D-printing process has delivered solutions for a broad spectrum of needs primarily due to its flexibility, cost effectiveness and environmental friendliness. In addition, the development in synergizing photocatalysis and 3D-printing technology has provided an optimistic outlook for sustainable wastewater treatment. In present study, a 3D-printed photocatalytic reactor was successfully designed and constructed via digital light processing technique. Besides that, a visible-light sensitive photocatalyst, graphitic carbon nitride homojunction was synthesized via a facile hydrothermal approach. The as-developed photocatalyst was then prepared in a form of thermoset coating and subsequently applied onto the base of 3D-printed photoreactor. A series of characterization tests were conducted to gain an in-depth understanding of the surface morphology and topology, chemical structure, thermal stability, elemental compositions, and surface wettability of the photocatalyst system. The photocatalytic performance of the graphitic carbon nitride homojunction-based thermoset coating was evaluated via Rhodamine B (RhB) dye degradation under the irradiation of a 50 W LED light. A removal efficiency of 95.62% was achieved within 24 h with a corresponding kinetic rate constant of 2.1 × 10 −3 min −1. The recyclability of the photocatalytic system was verified by assessing its photoactivity for five consecutive cycles and retained 98.5% of its initial photoactivity. Overall, this research work may intrigue more exploration between interdisciplinary researchers in the field of photocatalysis and additive manufacturing, especially for sustainable environmental remediation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106437
JournalJournal of Environmental Chemical Engineering
Issue number6
Early online date23 Sept 2021
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021


  • 3D-printing technology
  • Adsorption
  • Homojunction graphitic carbon nitride-based thermoset coating
  • Photocatalysis
  • Wastewater treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Pollution
  • Process Chemistry and Technology


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