3D LIDAR imaging using Ge-on-Si single–photon avalanche diode detectors

Kateryna Kuzmenko, Peter Vines, Abderrahim Halimi, Robert J. Collins, Aurora Maccarone, Aongus McCarthy, Zoë M. Greener, Jarosław Kirdoda, Derek C. S. Dumas, Lourdes Ferre Llin, Muhammad M. Mirza, Ross W. Millar, Douglas J. Paul, Gerald S. Buller*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

51 Citations (Scopus)
217 Downloads (Pure)


We present a scanning light detection and ranging (LIDAR) system incorporating an individual Ge-on-Si single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) detector for depth and intensity imaging in the short-wavelength infrared region. The time-correlated single-photon counting technique was used to determine the return photon time-of-flight for target depth information. In laboratory demonstrations, depth and intensity reconstructions were made of targets at short range, using advanced image processing algorithms tailored for the analysis of single–photon time-of-flight data. These laboratory measurements were used to predict the performance of the single-photon LIDAR system at longer ranges, providing estimations that sub-milliwatt average power levels would be required for kilometer range depth measurements.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1330-1344
Number of pages15
JournalOptics Express
Issue number2
Early online date8 Jan 2020
Publication statusPublished - 20 Jan 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics


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