3D concrete printing for sustainable and economical construction: A comparative study

Mustafa Batikha*, Rahul Jotangia, Mohamad Yasser Baaj, Ibrahim Mousleh

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

44 Citations (Scopus)
369 Downloads (Pure)


Literature about 3D Concrete Printing (3DCP) examined small-printed elements or structures, while the data available about printed buildings are from the market. Therefore, there is no robust answer regarding 3DCP efficiency compared to other construction methods. In this research, a two-storey building was designed using five construction methods: 3DCP, prefabricated modular construction, cast-in-situ reinforced concrete, cold-formed steel and hot-rolled steel. The aim is to compare 3DCP to other construction techniques in terms of the construction duration, cost and CO2 emissions. This study shows that excluding prefabricated modular concrete, 3DCP reduces the construction duration by about 95%. 3DCP also offers the greatest cost savings and behaves similarly to cold-formed steel to produce approximately 32% less CO2 emissions. Thus, this work provides a necessary outlook on the current viability of 3DCP to relevant stakeholders and industry professionals and inspires future research on 3DCP as an economical and sustainable construction solution.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104087
JournalAutomation in Construction
Early online date9 Dec 2021
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2022


  • 3D concrete printing
  • Cast-in-situ reinforced concrete
  • Cold-formed steel
  • Construction duration
  • Cost analysis
  • Hot-rolled steel
  • Modular precast
  • Sustainability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction


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